Hip Arthroscopy: extra-articular Procedures
Hip preservation is one of the fastest growing fields in orthopaedics and indications of intra-articular procedures are well established. In the last decade, extra-articular procedures have gained momentum and arthroscopic solutions to peri-articular hip pathologies have been offered. It should be noted that many of these pathologies are well-treated conservatively and only those who fail conservative management should be treated operatively. These indications can be divided into 5 categories: greater trochanteric pain syndrome; internal hip snapping; anterior inferior iliac spine/sub-spine impingement; sciatic nerve entrapment; and proximal hamstring injuries. This article reviews the anatomy, patient history and physical examination, imaging, non-operative treatment, endoscopic operative treatment and outcomes of each category. While indications for hip arthroscopy, specifically extra-articular procedures, are rising steadily, there is not enough data to support its superiority over open procedures. Current literature consists of case studies, case reports, and expert opinions and lacks large, randomised control studies.