Periacetabular Osteotomy in Athletes With Symptomatic Hip Dysplasia Allows for Participation in Low-, Moderate-, and High-Impact Sports, With Greater Than 70% Return to Sport for Competitive Athletes: A Systematic Review
Purpose: To systematically review the literature and report the rate of return to sport (RTS) in athletes following periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) for symptomatic hip dysplasia.
Methods: A literature search of the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines for clinical studies reporting on athletes undergoing PAO surgery for symptomatic hip dysplasia. A quality assessment was performed using the Methodological Index of Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) grading system. Data collection included study characteristics, demographics, radiographic measurements, rate and timing of RTS, baseline and most recent patient-reported outcomes (PROs), and subsequent surgeries.
Results: Six studies met inclusion criteria with 341 patients undergoing PAO. There were 2 level III and 4 level IV studies, with an average MINORS score of 11. Preoperative and postoperative lateral center edge angles ranged from 8° to 18° and 23° to 41.3°, respectively. One study reported solely on dancers with a 63% rate of RTS at 1 year postoperatively. Two other studies reported RTS of 80% and 82% for multiple sports, with slightly lower rates (73% and 78%) in competitive athletes. Three studies demonstrated a comparable distribution of sports participation, from the preoperative to postoperative period, in low-impact (61.4% to 72.1% and 63.7% to 85.7%), moderate-impact (10.3% to 21.0% and 4.3% to 25.4%), and high-impact (8.5% to 17.6% and 5.1% to 10.8%) sports. Three studies reported time to RTS after PAO, ranging from 8.8 to 12.8 months. Of the 3 studies noting reasons for not returning to sport, concerns related to the operative hip ranged from 36.4% to 67%. Of the studies that reported both preoperative and postoperative PROs, improvements in all values were observed, with modified Harris Hip Scores and Hip Disability Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores at most recent follow-up ranging from 81 to 95 and 72 to 93, respectively.
Conclusions: In athletes with symptomatic hip dysplasia undergoing PAO, postoperative participation in low-, moderate-, and high-impact sports was observed, with greater than 70% RTS for competitive athletes. These findings suggest that PAO, with appropriate indications, is an efficacious treatment option in this active patient population with severe dysplasia.