Predictors of Achieving the Patient Acceptable Symptomatic State at Minimum 5-Year Follow-up Following Primary Hip Arthroscopy in the Adolescent Athlete
Background: Predictors of outcomes in adolescent athletes undergoing hip arthroscopy have not been established. The purpose of this study was to identify factors correlated with achieving the Patient Acceptable Symptomatic State (PASS) for the Hip Outcome Score-Sports Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS) at a minimum 5-year follow-up in adolescent athletes undergoing primary hip arthroscopy.
Methods: Data were reviewed on adolescent (below 18 y old) athletes who underwent primary hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome between March 2008 and October 2015. Patients were included if they participated in sport within 1 year before surgery and had preoperative, 2-year, and minimum 5-year postoperative patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores for the modified Harris Hip Score, HOS-SSS, Visual Analog Scale for pain (VAS), and Non-Arthritic Hip Score (NAHS). Patients were divided into 2 groups based on whether they achieved PASS for HOS-SSS. Demographics, intraoperative findings, radiographic variables, surgical treatments, and PRO were compared. Multivariate logistic regression with corresponding odds ratios (ORs) quantified the correlation between variables and achievement of the PASS.
Results: A total of 123 athletes with a mean age of 16.2±1.1 years were included. These athletes demonstrated significant imrpovement from preoperative to minimum 5-year follow-up for all recorded PROs (P<0.001). The multivariate logistic regression model identified preoperative NAHS (P=0.019, OR: 1.033), 2-year postoperative HOS-SSS (P=0.014, OR: 1.037), and 2-year postoperative VAS (P=0.003, OR: 0.590) as statistically significantly correlated with achieving the PASS. Athletes with a 2-year postoperative VAS pain score ≤2 achieved PASS at a rate of 81.9%, while those with a score >2 achieved PASS at a rate of 24.1% (P<0.001, OR: 14.2, 95% confidence interval: 5.23-38.7).
Conclusions: Favorable outcome were achieved at mid-term follow-up in adolescent athletes undergoing primary hip arthroscopy. Preoperative NAHS, 2-year postoperative HOS-SSS, and 2-year postoperative VAS pain scores were correlated with achieving the PASS for HOS-SSS at a minimum 5-year follow-up. Patients with 2-year postoperative VAS ≤2 were significantly more likely to achieve the PASS at 5-year follow-up than those with scores >2.