Hip dysplasia is a congenital condition in which the acetabulum or socket is shallow. This creates under-coverage of the femoral head. The weight-bearing portion of the hip becomes overloaded as it is increasingly focused on a small area.
Dysplasia can lead to hip instability, labral damage and early-onset arthritis.
Patients with untreated dysplasia may be at an increased requirement of a hip replacement early in life.
Mild dysplasia can often be addressed arthroscopically by repairing a torn labrum and tightening the capsule around the joint.
Severe dysplasia can be treated with correction of the mechanical and bony deformity through a procedure called a peri-acetabular osteotomy (PAO). The American Hip Institute has created a team to severe dysplasia with combined arthroscopy, to repair torn labrum arthroscopically, and a PAO, to correct the bony mechanical deformity, in the same operation. This is aimed to treat both the bony deformity and the source of pain.
Dysplasia is a developmental condition and may be caused by:
- Injury or insult in utero or during early childhood
- Infection during in utero or during early childhood
- Position in the uterus
Risk Factors for hip dyplasia include:
- Large birth weight
- Breech position
- Family history of developmental dysplasia of the hip
Symptoms of hip dysplasia
- Constant, achy pain
- Intermittent catching or locking
- Groin pain
- Buttock pain
- Difficulty walking
- Extreme flexibility
Physical Exam Findings
- Difficulty standing on one leg
- Limb length discrepancy
- Pain with range of motion
Imaging Studies to diagnose the severity of dysplasia and intra-articular damage
- X-rays: assess bony abnormality
- MRI: assess cartilage damage and injury to the joint